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The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view of the subject. Film finance is an aspect of film production that occurs during the development stage prior to pre-production, and is concerned with determining the potential value of a proposed film. A number of governments run programs to subsidise the cost of producing films. For instance, until it was abolished in March 2011, in the United Kingdom the UK Film Council provided National Lottery funding to producers, as long as certain conditions were met. Governments are willing to provide these subsidies as they hope it will attract creative individuals to their territory and stimulate employment. Also, a film shot in a particular location can have the benefit of advertising that location to an international audience. Government subsidies are often pure grants, where the government expects no financial return. These so-called “soft-money” incentives are generally not realized until a theatrical or interactive production is completed, all payments are made to workers, financial institutions, and rental or prop companies within the state or province offering the incentives.
A number of countries have introduced legislation that has the effect of generating enhanced tax deductions for producers or owners of films. The individual will often become the legal owner of the film or certain rights relating to the film. A relatively new tactic for raising finance is through German tax shelters. The tax law of Germany allows investors to take an instant tax deduction even on non-German productions and even if the film has not yet gone into production. This tactic favors big-budget films as the profit on more modestly budgeted films would be consumed by the legal and administrative costs.
Despite its frequent use in the past, the above schemes are all but gone and are being replaced by more traditional production incentives. The DFFF is a grant given by the German Federal Commissioner for Culture and the Media. To receive the grant a producer has to fulfill different requirements including a cultural eligibility test. The film finance calculator on germanfilmfinance. 10 million could be raised, but UK law insists that part of the film is shot in Britain and that the production employs a fair proportion of British actors and crew. Pre-sales is, based on the script and cast, selling the right to distribute a film in different territories before the film is completed.
DVD, pay TV, free TV, etc. Although it is more usual for a producer to sell the TV rights of this film after it has been made, it is sometimes possible to sell the rights in advance and use the money to pay for the production. In some cases the television station will be a subsidiary of the movie studio’s parent company. A negative pickup deal is a contract entered into by an independent producer and a movie studio wherein the studio agrees to purchase the movie from the producer at a given date and for a fixed sum. Until then, the financing is up to the producer, who must pay any additional costs if the film goes over-budget. This is commonly referred to as “factoring paper”. Splitting the roles of studios and networks necessitated a means for financing television series appropriate to the varied risks and rewards inherent in the separation.
Deficit financing developed after the varied risks and rewards were determined and carried out through film financing. Deficit financing occurs when the license fee for a show doesn’t fully cover production fees. A studio has ownership of the production, but as license fees are handed out in exchange to air a show, the phrase deficit financing comes into play as costs were not being met and paid. From the late 1960s through the mid-1990s special regulations from financial regulation’s and syndication’s rules created relations between television networks and independent production companies. Profits from any other sales, including syndication, generally benefited the production community. Bridge finance has increased in prevalence in filmmaking in recent years.
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Bridge financing is an answer to the common “catch-22” problem of needing funding to get the actors, but not being able to get the funding without actors. A relatively new method of financing, slate financing “involves an investment in a specified number of studio films ranging from a mere handful to dozens of pictures”, typically by private equity firms and hedge funds. The idea for slate financing came from “multifilm credit lines” that banks and investment firms created for studios in the late 1990s. Generally tax-advantaged theatrical film and television investment for affluent individuals comes with little risk.
In general, production costs can be recouped through federal and state tax incentives, thereby eliminating most of the risk. One of the hardest types of film financing pieces to obtain is private investor funds. These are funds invested by an individual who is looking to possibly add more risk to his investment portfolio, or a high-net-worth individual with a keen interest in films. Income from product placement can be used to supplement the budget of a film.
The Bond franchise is notable for its lucrative product placements deals, bringing in millions of dollars. 20 million for product placement, a record-high amount. With a rising popularity of online crowdfunding more and more films are getting financed directly by their consumers this way. Crowdfunding films gives the consumer a voice in what films are being produced, allow for riskier, more socially relevant, more innovative, less profit-oriented independent films with smaller and marginal target audiences that can’t be found in mainstream cinema and lower the entry-barrier to new filmmakers.
Film finance is a subset of project finance, meaning the film project’s generated cash flows rather than external sources are used to repay investors. Past film slate’s poor performance records are showing up in public court documents. AIG had offered insurance against film slates and the bonds issued to fund them, but now fully refuse to cover film slates. Many outside of Hollywood fail to realize the longevity of film and television after-market income streams. Many commercial films and network television shows will make money for decades. For the investor who pays for part of the negative costs, the time value of money is important.
VaultML has developed technologies usually seen in high-frequency trading to predict box office success and investor risk using artificial intelligence. They claim to analyze over 300,000 elements from screenplay to form a basis for prediction. Ryan Kavanaugh of Relativity Media offered participation in profits to actors, rather than up-front fees, to lower production costs and keep profits protected. Slated is the first dedicated online film finance marketplace for professional equity investing. Combined with Slated’s team, script and financial analysis, investors can have ownership in films. Epagogix has developed a system using neural networks to assess factors that contribute to box office success.