Your browser will redirect to your requested content shortly. Around this time in the mountainous Andes region in South America, the Inca ruler, Manco Capac, oversees the construction of the city-state of Cuzco. King John of England grants the town of Cambridge a charter. Maori islanders how To Lend Money Legally settled in what someday will be called New Zealand. The Fourth Crusade is underway, Pope Innocent III responding to the failure of the Third Crusade to recover Jerusalem.
Crusaders have attacked the Christian city of Zara, on the Dalmatian coast, with the Venetians, on whom they are dependent for transportation. The Pope excommunicates those crusaders who have attacked Zara. People called jesters begin to entertain in the courts of Europe’s kings. They are impoverished or are of sub-normal intelligence. They are beginning an art form in Europe for people who enjoy watching people make fools of themselves. In Western Africa, the empire of Ghana has lost control over the gold trade and has been in decline. One of Ghana’s subject people, the Sosso, overrun Ghana’s capital city, Kumbi. Another crusade fails to work out as planned.
Constantinople has revolted against the presence of the Crusaders, and the Crusaders have retaliated, seizing the city in a three-day orgy of rape and the plundering of palaces and Eastern Orthodox convents and churches. Fire has destroyed much of the city. Helping the Crusaders are the Venetians with whom the Crusaders have made an agreement to share the booty. On marshland at a dam on the Amstel River, people have started the village that will one day be Amsterdam. At Kamakura he has gained the patronage of the military government. In 1205 he completes the first temple, Kenninji, dedicated solely to Zen Buddhism. Thousands of children with a few adults and clerics, fired up by preaching against heretics, start for Jerusalem to rescue the Holy Land from Muslims. They are deficient in money and organization but believe that as children they are favored by God and could work miracles that adults cannot. Before the year is over it ends in disaster.
Many children die or are sold into slavery. King John of England wanted his fiefs in Normandy and Anjou back. He allies himself with Emperor Otto IV, Holy Roman Emperor. But Philip Augustus of France defeats them at the Battle of Bovines. Genghis Khan and his army overrun Beijing. They ravage the countryside, gathering information and booty. Then they pull back to northern frontier passes.
Frustrated by the growing power of the kings of England, English nobles join together and force King John to sign a document they hope will protect them from imprisonment or loss of property without a trial by a jury of their peers. The Church’s Fourth Lateran Council meets in Rome to enact legislation as to what is heresy and what is not. The Council decides that all Catholics are to confess their sins at least once a year, that clergy is to remain celibate, sober and to refrain from gambling, hunting, engaging in trade, going to taverns or wearing bright or ornate clothing. The Council decrees that marriage will be a Church affair and that Jews will wear a yellow label. It was planned by Pope Innocent III, who died in 1226. Its purpose, to rescue Jerusalem from the Muslims.
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But it is not the popular movement that previous crusades were. It begins with small-scale military operations against powers that be in Syria. Muslim opposition to the new crusade is divided, giving the crusade a better chance of success. Genghis Khan wanted trade on his western frontier. He is now moving his army westward and over-running prosperous cities such as Bukhara and Samarkand. The Fifth Crusade ends without success. Genghis Khan has pushed into Persia, Azerbaijan and Armenia, defeating Christian knights and capturing a Genoese trading fortress in the Crimea.
He has invaded Russia, and on his way back home in 1223 he routes a Slavic army at the battle of Kalka River. He has greatly expanded his family’s territory. The French monarchy has become a maritime and commercial power, and Paris has become a fortified city with a university that attracts students from various other lands. The manufacture of cotton cloth has begun in Spain. Genghis Khan, at the age of 65, falls off his horse while fighting against the Tangut in northwestern China.
A Japanese who has been studying in China brings back to Japan the Chuan school of Buddhism, to be known as Zen. The Sixth Crusade begins, led by the excommunicated Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, who is being ignored by Pope Gregory IX. Frederick wants control over Jerusalem, which he believes he has inherited through marriage. Frederick signs a ten-year truce and an alliance with the Sultan of Egypt, al-Kamil, who is struggling against Muslim opponents. Al-Kamil recognizes Frederick as King of Jerusalem and cedes to him Bethlehem and Nazareth, but Frederick is not allowed to rebuild the walls of Jerusalem, destroyed by Saladin in 1187. Fearing confused responses to reading the Bible, church leaders at Toulouse forbid common people to read it.
The institution known as the Inquisition begins. Pope Gregory IX is taking responsibility for orthodoxy away from bishops and putting inquisitors under jurisdiction of the papacy. The son of Ghenghis Khan, Ogedei, has sent an army into Korea to police defiance of an agreement with them, and the Koreans start a rebellion against Mongol rule. Coal is mined for the first time at a place in England called Newcastle.
Ogedei completes this conquest of northern China. Paradise eludes at least a part of Africa. In western Africa the Sosso ruler, Sumaguru Kante, has been raiding and conquering people. Sundjata Keita, who survived one of Sumaguru’s raids a decade earlier, is leading a guerrilla war against Sumaguru and defeats him. Sundjata takes control of all the Soninke people recently conquered by the Sosso.
Ogedei’s army, without Odogei, has pushed into Russia and overruns the cities of Vladimir, Kolmna and Moscow. Ogedei’s army destroys Kiev, and deeper into Europe, at Liegnitz, although outnumbered, the Mongols destroy a German army of heavily armored knights. At the Neva River the prince of Novogrod defeats an invasion from Sweden. He takes control of the gold trade routes and rules a new empire: Mali. Ogedei’s army, without Ogedei, reaches Vienna.