Enter the characters you see below Sorry, we just need to make sure how Ngo Make Money’re not a robot. In this Vietnamese name, the family name is Ngô, but is often simplified to Ngo in English-language text. According to Vietnamese custom, this person should properly be referred to by the given name Diệm. Ngo Dinh Diem – Thumbnail – ARC 542189. Ngô Đình Diệm was born in 1901 in Quảng Bình, a province in central Vietnam.
His family originated in Phú Cam Village, a Catholic village adjacent to Huế City. His clan had been among Vietnam’s earliest Catholic converts in the 17th century. Ngô Đình Khả was educated in a Catholic school in British Malaya, where he learned English and studied the European-style curriculum. He was a devout Catholic and scrapped plans to become a Roman Catholic priest in the late 1870s. After the tragedy of his family, Khả decided to abandon preparation for the priesthood and married. After his first wife died childless, Khả remarried and had nine children—six sons and three daughters—by his second wife, Phạm Thị Thân. These were Ngô Đình Khôi, Ngô Đình Thị Giao, Ngô Đình Thục, Ngô Đình Diệm, Ngô Đình Thị Hiệp, Ngô Đình Thị Hoàng, Ngô Đình Nhu, Ngô Đình Cẩn, Ngô Đình Luyện. At the end of his secondary schooling at Lycée Quốc học, the French lycée in Huế, Diem’s outstanding examination results elicited the offer of a scholarship to study in Paris.
He declined and, in 1918, enrolled at the prestigious School of Public Administration and Law in Hanoi, a French school that prepared young Vietnamese to serve in the colonial administration. After graduating at the top of his class in 1921, Diệm followed in the footsteps of his eldest brother, Ngô Đình Khôi, joining the civil service in Thừa Thiên as a junior official. Starting from the lowest rank of mandarin, Diệm steadily rose over the next decade. During his career as a mandarin, Diệm was known for his workaholism and incorruptibility, and as a Catholic leader and nationalist. Catholic nationalism in Vietnam during the 1920s and 1930s facilitated Diệm’s ascent in his bureaucratic career. In 1929, he was promoted to the governorship of Bình Thuận Province and was known for his work ethic.
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In 1930 and 1931, he helped the French suppress the first peasant revolts organized by the communists. For the next decade, Diệm lived as a private citizen with his family in Huế, although he was kept under surveillance. He spent his time reading, meditating, attending church, gardening, hunting, and in amateur photography. In 1945, after the coup against French colonial rule, the Japanese offered Diệm the post of prime minister in the Empire of Vietnam under Bảo Đại, which they organized on leaving the country. He declined initially, but reconsidered his decision and attempted to reverse the refusal. During the Indochina War, Diệm and other non-communist nationalists had to face a dilemma: they did not want to restore colonial rule and did not want to support the Việt Minh.
Diệm also secretly maintained contact with high-ranking leaders of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam, attempting to convince them to leave Hồ Chí Minh’s government and join him. According to Miller, during his early career, there were at least three ideologies which influenced Diệm’s social and political views in the 1920s and 1930s. The first of these was Catholic nationalism, which Diệm inherited from his family’s tradition, especially from Cardinal Ngô Đình Thục, his brother, and Nguyễn Hữu Bài, who advised him to “return the seal” in 1933 to oppose French policies. Diệm applied for permission to travel to Rome for the Holy Year celebrations at the Vatican. After gaining French permission, he left in August 1950 with his older brother, Bishop Ngô Đình Thục. In Rome, Diệm obtained an audience with Pope Pius XII at the Vatican before undertaking further lobbying across Europe. He also met with French and Vietnamese officials in Paris and sent a message indicating that he was willing to be the Prime Minister of the State of Vietnam to Bảo Đại.
But Bảo Đại then refused to meet him. The Americans’ assessments of Diệm were varied. Some were unimpressed with him, some admired him. Diệm gained favor with some high-ranking officials, such as Supreme Court Justice William O. During Diệm’s exile, his brothers Ngô Đình Nhu, Ngô Đình Cẩn, and Ngô Đình Luyện played important roles in helping him to build international and internal networks and support in different ways for his return to Vietnam. Until 1953, the State of Vietnam was nominally independent from Paris.
Since dissatisfaction with France and Bảo Đại was rising among non-communist nationalists, and support from non-communist nationalists and Diệm’s allies was rising for his “true independence” point of view, Diệm sensed that it was time for him to come to power in Vietnam. In early 1954, Bảo Đại offered Diệm the position of Prime Minister in the new government in Vietnam. In May 1954, the French surrendered at Điện Biên Phủ and the Geneva Conference began in April 1954. He also could not control the Bank of Indochina. Diệm had only expected 10,000 refugees, but by August, there were more than 200,000 waiting for evacuation from Hanoi and Hải Phòng. Nevertheless, the migration helped to strengthen Diệm’s political base of support.
In August 1954, Diệm also had to face the “Hinh crisis” when Nguyễn Văn Hinh launched a series of public attacks on Diệm, proclaiming that South Vietnam needed a “strong and popular” leader. Hinh also bragged that he was preparing a coup. However, at the end of 1954, Diệm successfully forced Hinh to resign from his post. Hinh had to flee to Paris and hand over his command of the national army to general Nguyễn Văn Vỹ. On 31 December 1954, Diệm established the National Bank of Vietnam and replaced the Indochinese banknotes with new Vietnamese banknotes. In early 1955, although American advisors encouraged Diệm to negotiate with the leaders of the political-religious forces who threatened to overthrow his position and to forge an anti-communist bloc, he was determined to attack his enemies to consolidate his power.